تبیین الگوی کمّی عوامل بروز فساد در صنعت فوتبال ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

10.30473/fmss.2019.47553.1976

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین الگوی کمّی عوامل بروز فساد در صنعت فوتبال ایران با رویکرد نظریۀ داده بنیاد بود. پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ روش انجام پژوهش کمّی و از نوع پژوهش‌های مُدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) بود که برای ساخت مُدل مفهومی پژوهش از روش نظریۀ داده بنیاد (سیستماتیک) استفاده شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیّه مدیران ستادی وزارت ورزش و فدراسیون فوتبال، صاحب‌نظران و اساتید دانشگاه، اصحاب رسانه، مدیران عامل باشگاه‌های فوتبال، مربیان، بازیکنان و داوران که حائز شرایط لازم بودند؛ تشکیل می‌دادند (165=N) که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته‌ای بود که از طریق مصاحبه با خِبرگان و صاحب‌نظران تهیه و تدوین شده بود. روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسشنامه توسط 10 نفر از اساتید و متخصصین بررسی و پایایی ابزار توسط ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بدست آمد (897/0=α). بمنظور بررسی ساختار عاملی پرسشنامه از آزمون تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی استفاده شد که منجر به شناسایی 18 عامل با 71 گویه شد. داده‌های گردآوری شده توسط آزمون تحلیل عاملی تأییدی به روش حداقل مربعات جزئی (PLS) مورد سنجش قرار گرفت که روایی سازه نیز مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. با توجه به مقادیر ضرایب معناداری (t) بدست آمده با اطمینان 95% از مُدل ساختاری، کلیه عوامل علّی، زمینه‌ای، مداخله‌گر، راهبرد و پیامد بر پدیده محوری (فساد) دارای تأثیر معنادار و در جهت مثبت داشتند و تنها ارتباط بین مقوله‌های علّی، زمینه‌ای، مداخله‌گر و راهبرد بر پیامد اثر معنادار و در جهت معکوس (منفی) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Abzari, M. Faghani, F. Application of AHP and TOPSIS Approach to Prioritize the Factors Affecting Corruption and its Coping Strategies. The Journal of Operations Research in its Applications. 2013.10 (36). P. 57-43. (Persian)
  2. Bosco B. Old and new factors affecting corruption in Europe: Evidence from panel data. Economic Analysis and Policy. 2016 Sep 1;51:66-85.
  3. Brewer GA, Choi Y, Walker RM. Accountability, corruption and government effectiveness in Asia: an exploration of World Bank governance indicators. International Public Management Review. 2007 Jan 1;8(2):204-25.
  4. Buraimo B, Migali G, Simmons R. Corruption does not pay: An analysis of consumer response to Italy’s Calciopoli scandal. Manuscript submitted for publication. 2012 Apr 4.
  5. Campbell JL, Göritz AS. Culture corrupts! A qualitative study of organizational culture in corrupt organizations. Journal of business ethics. 2014 Mar 1;120(3):291-311.
  6. Carson LD, Prado MM. Using institutional multiplicity to address corruption as a collective action problem: Lessons from the Brazilian case. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 2016 Nov 1;62:56-65.
  7. Cheung HY, Chan AW. Corruption across countries: Impacts from education and cultural dimensions. The Social Science Journal. 2008 Jun 1;45(2):223-39.
  8. Collins JD, Uhlenbruck K, Rodriguez P. Why firms engage in corruption: A top management perspective. Journal of Business Ethics. 2009 Jun 1;87(1):89-108.
  9. Danayeefard, H. Anti-Corruption Strategy: Does Information Technology Reduce Corruption? Quarterly Journal of Humanities.2005. 2 (39). (Persian).
  10. Davoudi, A. Rezazadeh, A. Structural Equation Modeling with Software Pls. Publishing Jahad University. Tehran.2013 (Persian).
  11. Den Nieuwenboer NA, Kaptein M. Spiraling down into corruption: A dynamic analysis of the social identity processes that cause corruption in organizations to grow. Journal of Business Ethics. 2008 Dec 1;83(2):133-46.
  12. Di Ronco A, Lavorgna A. Fair play? Not so much: Corruption in the Italian football. Trends in organized crime. 2015 Sep 1;18(3):176-95.
  13. Dwyer L, Mellor R, Mistilis N, Mules T. A framework for assessing “tangible” and “intangible” impacts of events and conventions. Event management. 2000 Mar 1;6(3):175-89.
  14. Elahi, A. The performance of the organization of the Professional Football League of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its comparison with the Japan Professional Football League. Master's thesis, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences of Tehran University.2004. (Persian)
  15. Elahi, A., Sajjadi, S N., Khabiri, M., Abrishami, H. Barriers to attracting income from financial support in the Islamic Republic of Iran Football Industry. Journal of Sport Management.2009.1. P. 202-189. (Persian)
  16. Gholipour, R. Nick Raftar, T. Corruption and appropriate strategies to combat it. Journal of Parliament and Strategy.2005. 53 P: 54-33. (Persian).
  17. Gorse S, Chadwick S. The prevalence of corruption in international sport. Report Gambling Association. 2011 Nov;11.Page: 1-41.
  18. Gorsira M, Steg L, Denkers A, Huisman W. Corruption in organizations: Ethical climate and individual motives. Administrative Sciences. 2018 Mar;8(1):4.
  19. Gross M. Organizations of corrupt individuals: a study of corruption in international cricket and the Catholic Church.2011;PP: 1-325.
  20. Hill D. A critical mass of corruption: why some football leagues have more match-fixing than others. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 2010 Apr 1;11(3):38-52.
  21. Huntington, S. P. Modernization and corruptionPolitical order in changing societies.1968; 59-71.
  22. Javan Jafari, A. Safari, S. Criminal Challenges Facing Violence in Athletes in Football. Journal of Criminal Law, Third Year.2014. 9. P: 81-57. (Persian)
  23. Jennings A. Foul!: The secret world of FIFA: Bribes, vote rigging and ticket scandals. London: HarperSport; 2006.
  24. Kazemnezhad, A. Heidari, M R. Norouz Zadeh, R. Statistical methods in health care and SPSS application in data analysis. Tehran, Community Publisher. 2011.(Persian)
  25. Kochan N, Goodyear R. Corruption: The new corporate challenge. Palgrave Macmillan; 2011 Sep 20. P:1- 85. 
  26. Leech NL, Barret KC, Morgan GA. SPSS for Introductory Statistics: Use and Intermediate.
  27. Luo Y. An organizational perspective of corruption. Management and Organization Review. 2005 Mar;1(1):119-54.
  28. Maennig W. Corruption in international sports and sport management: Forms, tendencies, extent and countermeasures. European Sport Management Quartely. 2005 Jun 1;5(2):187-225.
  29. Manoli AE, Antonopoulos GA, Bairner A. The inevitability of corruption in Greek football. Soccer & Society. 2019 Feb 17;20(2):199-215.
  30. Mason DS, Thibault L, Misener L. An agency theory perspective on corruption in sport: The case of the International Olympic Committee. Journal of sport management. 2006 Jan 1;20(1):52-73.
  31. Masters A. Corruption in sport: From the playing field to the field of policy. Policy and Society. 2015 Jun 1;34(2):111-23.
  32. Min KS. The effectiveness of anti-corruption policies: measuring the impact of anti-corruption policies on integrity in the public organizations of South Korea. Crime, Law and Social Change. 2019 Mar 21;71(2):217-39.
  33. Moyo S. Corruption in Zimbabwe: an examination of the roles of the state and civil society in combating corruption (Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Lancashire). P:60-61.
  34. Najafi Kooluri, M. Goodarzi, M. Farahani, A. Esmaeili Beidhendi, H. Factors Influencing Corruption in Sport Organizations (Case Study: Corruption in the Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran). Journal of Sport Management,2012. Issue 14, P: 122-109. (Persian)
  35. Nassif N. Corruption in sport: the case of Lebanon. Middle East Law and Governance. 2014 Jul 30;6(2):123-40.
  36. Nogara M. Role of Media in Curbing Corruption: The Case of Uganda under President Yoweri K. Museveni during the'No-Party'System. No. 72.PP:1-32.
  37. Olken BA. Monitoring corruption: evidence from a field experiment in Indonesia. Journal of political Economy. 2007 Apr;115(2):200-49.
  38. Pound RW. Dealing with Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sport. POLICY OPTIONS-MONTREAL-. 2003 Feb;24(2):76-9.
  39. Rabbiosi L, Santangelo GD. Host country corruption and the organization of HQ–subsidiary relationships. Journal of International Business Studies. 2019 Feb 12;50(1):111-24.
  40. Rabl T, Kühlmann TM. Understanding corruption in organizations–development and empirical assessment of an action model. Journal of business ethics. 2008 Oct 1;82(2):477.
  41. Razaghi, M I. Ramezaninejad, R. Mehrabi, Gh. Examining the Effective Dimensions of Corruption in Football. Research Journal of Modern Trends in Sport Management.2014. 2(7), P: 52-41. (Persian)
  42. Rose-Ackerman S, Palifka BJ. Corruption and government: Causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge university press; 2016 Mar 7.
  43. Seldadyo H, de Haan J. The determinants of corruption: A literature survey and new evidence. InEPCS Conference, Turku, Finland 2006 Apr 20 (pp. 20-23).
  44. Sheng J, Han X, Zhou H, Miao Z. Effects of corruption on performance: Evidence from the UN-REDD Programme. Land Use Policy. 2016 Dec 31;59:344-50.
  45. Sinzdak G. An analysis of current whistleblower laws: Defending a more flexible approach to reporting requirements. Calif. L. Rev.. 2008;96:1633.
  46. Tenenhaus M, Amato S, Esposito Vinzi V. A global goodness-of-fit index for PLS structural equation modelling. InProceedings of the XLII SIS scientific meeting 2004 Jun 9 (Vol. 1, pp. 739-742).
  47. Westerbeek H, Smith A. Sport trek: future sport business in the global marketplace. InSport Business in the Global Marketplace 2003 (pp. 197-228). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  48. Wetzels M, Odekerken-Schröder G, Van Oppen C. Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: Guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS quarterly. 2009 Mar 1:177-95.
  49. Williams B, Onsman A, Brown T. Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine. 2010 Aug 2;8(3).
  50. Yilmaz S, Manoli AE, Antonopoulos GA. An anatomy of Turkish football match-fixing. Trends in Organized Crime. 2018 May 23:1-9.
  51. Zare, A. Ansari, Z.  Fallah Kazemi, M. The Effect of Social Health on the Control of Corruption in the General Office of Sports and Youth of Fars Province. Journal of Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch.2015.1(32). P: 260-243. (Persian)
  52. Zare, A. Heydarinezhad, S. Shirali, R. The Impact of Mass Media on the Control of Corruption in Football. Journal of Communication Management in Sports Media.2016. 3(12), P: 24-11. (Persian)